PSR 2(198)2017




Transformation of the Memory and Symbolism of Local Space in the Process of European Integration

European integration impacts the perception and symbolism of space, and the resultant transformation seems to be linked to changes in memory. Both of these factors belong to the deep, although not always conscious effects of integration. Memory is rarely stable. The biographical events in an individual’s life, along with changes in the meaning of the broad European space, affect the symbolism of a local space as developed in both individual and collective memory. This also transforms the memory and symbolism of even the most intimate experience of a local space-and again, this takes place both in the memory of individuals and in the collective memory of local communities. Its form greatly depends on the variety of agents involved in public discourse, such as the media and the arguments made by political and religious leaders. One of the factors involved is the change in social and cultural perspective created by the expanded area of easily accessible space, which in today’s EU includes countries once separated by physically experienced borders. In the article I will attempt to identify and describe the mechanisms involved in transforming the symbolism of local space. One of the issues addressed will be the confrontation between advancing cosmopolitanism and the rise of attachment to localities.

Keywords: European integration, memory, territorial identity, local space, symbolism of space.

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The Unlikely Eurosceptics: the Undercurrent Anti-European Attitudes

among the Young Poles and the Role of the Domestic Context

The first generation of Poles whose political horizons have been limited by their country’s membership in the EU by a popular assumption should also be the most pro-European section of the society. However, empirical evidence demonstrates that despite the broad support for Poland’s membership that we see on the surface, young people’s perceptions of the EU are characterised by undercurrent euroscepticism. This undercurrent euroscepticism is less about a pragmatic assessment of benefits and losses, and more about concerns about emotive-symbolic issues, such as authority, self-determination, sovereignty, national identity and values. While the benefits of the EU membership are often taken for granted, the concerns about sovereignty understood in an old-fashioned way are brought to the fore in young people’s perceptions of the EU. The article focuses on the role of the domestic political context and how the real and perceived generation gap plays into it. The paper calls for comprehensive education about European integration and critical thinking and media consumption literacy in order to diminish the susceptibility of young people to anti-European cues by political entrepreneurs.

Keywords: youth, euroscepticism, sovereignty, domestic context.

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The Contemporary Context of Youth Socialization: The Specificity of Post-Communist Countries 

The article focuses on the attempt to define socialization specificity in post-communist countries without which the understanding the youth’s characteristics and (in particular) their role in further system transformation is limited. We reconstruct the new logic in creation of a socio-cultural space in which the youth grow up (emphasizing the importance of national trajectories of departing from communism, and on the other, inevitability of globalization with its specific cultural offer). Socialization space is seen as a Lewin’s active field of coexisting, interdependent social facts through focusing on such significant socialization agendas as: the mass media, the state, religions and Churches, the school, the family, peers and the internet. The style in which these agendas appear in the socialization field increases its dimorphic nature, which in turn will not support the youth socialization, and it seems not to generate the conditions for the young generation of a historical chance.

Keywords: socialization, youth, post-communist countries.

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“Directiveness” as a Predictor of Religious Attitudes

This paper examines the relation between „directiveness” and levels of religiosity (conceptualized as the three dimensions of „closing-opening,” „clericalization-secularization,” and „dogmatism-permissiveness”). The model used has been empirically verified and is a consequence of previous studies proving that religiosity in itself generates both pro-social attitudes (especially in regard to an individual’s own religious group) and attitudes of aggression toward „outgroups.” Researchers have also demonstrated that religion can be a factor that inhibits actual aggression through values such as self-control of negative emotions or impulsive acts. This study finds that the model presented is statistically significant in terms of dimensions such as „closing-opening” and clericalization- secularization: higher directiveness makes it possible to predict higher „closing” and clericalization. This finding makes it possible to discuss directiveness as a foundation for real aggression and attitudes of discrimination against individuals or groups that pose a symbolic or real threat to the unity of the Roman Catholic community.

Keywords: directiveness, religious attitudes, Catholics, Directiveness Scale, Ray’s scale, Ray’s personality approach.

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The Social Consequences of Income Distribution—Are Increasing Company Profits a Threat to Economic and Social Stability?

The aim of this text is to show that unusually high levels of company profit should not be treated as a sign of a healthy economic situation but rather of a growing socio-economic imbalance. Huge profits are caused by the structure of many global markets-multinational companies often dominate markets and depress local competitors. The decline in household revenues and public budgets has led to ever larger public and private debts. At the same time, economic policy, which is determined by current politics, has contributed to a growth in income inequalities and social imbalances. The tax system has become ever less progressive and the structure of the financial market has become highly procyclical. The data analyzed in this text comes mainly from advanced economies, but it is clear that income distribution is one of the most important challenges facing the entire global economy.

Keywords: corporate profit, socio-economic equilibrium, income inequalities.

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Emotion Work in the Context of the Resocialization of Youth in Correctional Facilities in Poland

  This article reflects on the „emotion work” undertaken by youth in correctional facilities and the impact of such work on the resocialization process, which occurs in conditions of partial isolation. The author attempts to adapt the psychological concept to the educational activities offered in youth correctional facilities. He defends the idea that an inmate’s emotion work, which occurs through the inmate’s relations with the personnel, provides the basis for effective resocialization activities. He discusses activities to help boys and girls in correctional facilities develop accepted social mechanisms for managing their negative emotions. The findings presented in the article rest on seven years of qualitative research in resocialization centers of all types throughout Poland. The principle of triangulation in regard to method, researcher, and data was used for the research. For analysis of the empirical material, an interpretative paradigm was used to grasp the interactive nature of emotion work and the emergence of negative emotions.

Keywords: emotion work, juvenile delinquents, correctional facilities, total institutions, interaction, resocialization,social rehabilitation.

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Violence Towards Sex Workers. Analysis Based on Research into the Field of Indoor Sex Work in Poland 

The article presents the notion of violence in indoor sex work in Poland. It encompasses forms of violence experienced by female sex workers from their clients and co-workers. What is more, the paper presents how novice and more experienced workers define those experiences, together with the strategies that they apply when dealing with aggressive clients. Also discussed are the actions taken against the clients that present aggressive behavior by the managers and security workers of escort agencies. The article is based on qualitative field research carried out in escort agencies in Łódź, Poland. The main techniques of data collection comprised observations and unstructured interviews. The data were analyzed in accordance with the grounded theory methodology.

Keywords: female sex workers, grounded theory, indoor sex work, prostitution, qualitative research, violence.

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Polish Sociological Review – The English-language versions of publications were financed on the basis of decision no. 573/1/P-DUN/2017 by funds allocated by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education for the dissemination of knowledge.

Polish Sociological Review – digitalization of publications and monographs in order to ensure and maintain an open access through the Internet is financed by the decision no. 573/1/P-DUN/2017 and 817/P-DUN/2018 allocated by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education for the dissemination of knowledge.