PSR 4(200)2017












Social Theorists in Memoriam

In a postponed departure

announced by loudspeakers

in an air terminal

I meet Andrzej Malewski

The comfort of familiar embraces us

we laugh and we drink

and we talk on new found lands

Only our past is a sure destiny

(through open to interpretation)

Goodbye goodbye to academe

goodbye to wives and kin

At the runway’s point of no return

we are the alumni

the eternal students

(surprise surprise!)

who have found their form

managers of decisive projects

at home in the huge county of the world

worldly members of mankind

Straight through us

the roads are plain and independent:

considérez des faits sociaux comme des choses



Zetterberg and Malewski—Unfinished Collaboration and Friendship


Hans L. Zetterberg (1927–2014) was an outstanding figure among modern sociologists.

His main contribution to the social sciences was in the philosophy of science, which Polish

sociologists—such as Stefan Nowak and Andrzej Malewski—preferred to call metamethodology.

Professor Zetterberg did not live in an academic ivory tower but combined

theoretical work with research and social engagement. For many years, he was the owner-director

of one of the best research agencies in Sweden and editor-in-chief of a major Swedish

daily newspaper. For several years, he was also president of the World Association for Public

Research (WAPOR). In 1997, the American Sociological Association voted his book,

The Many-Splendored Society, to be the “20th century’s most influential book in sociology.”

Andrzej Malewski (1929–1969) belonged to a group of then young Polish sociologists

who, after de-Stalinization and the reintroduction of sociology to Polish universities, received

American grants to travel to the United States and study recent developments in

the social sciences, particularly in sociology, which the communists had previously declared

a “bourgeois pseudo-science” and banned from academia. Malewski brought back

to Poland current ideas in the philosophy of science, methodology, and social psychology,

which was quite a new discipline for Polish psychologists at that time.

Hans L. Zetterberg and Andrzej Malewski met for the first time at Columbia University,

where the former was already a renowned sociologist and the latter was a visitor from

communist Poland, thirsty for knowledge. They worked together extensively and became

good friends. Malewski’s very premature death in 1969 and Zetterberg’s passing in 2014

have been a great loss to sociology, social psychology, and other social sciences.

We had been meeting Hans L. Zetterberg at WAPOR conferences and congresses for

several years. We enjoyed each other’s company and talked about papers that had been

presented and sociology in general. In July 2010 we met him during the XVII ISA World

Congress of Sociology in Gothenburg. Seated together at dinner, we started talking about

relations between Swedish and Polish sociologists. Hans recalled his meeting with Andrzej

Malewski in an airport transit lounge in Zurich or Geneva. One of them was returning home,

the other was on his way to the US. They planned several meetings and talks which never

occurred because of Andrzej’s tragic death. After this unanticipated meeting Hans wrote

a poem; we were honored when he sent it to us. Karin Busch Zetterberg, his wife, kindly

agreed to its publication.

Last year, we found two unpublished papers by Andrzej Malewski in his archive in the

joint Library of the University of Warsaw’s Institute of Sociology and of the Institute of

Philosophy and Sociology of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Hanna Malewska-Peyre has

kindly given us permission to publish them. The first concerns an interest shared by both

Zetterberg and Malewski, namely the role of theory in the behavioral sciences. The second

is of an empirical nature on the borderline between sociology and social psychology. It

concerns a topic that is still constantly researched and intensely discussed by sociologists,

namely, attitudes toward income. Malewski has approached it in a not usual way, from the

socio-psychological perspective of defending one’s own position. The Polish Sociological

Review has decided to make an exception to its rule and to publish both these newly found

articles together in their original form, with only minor linguistic corrections. They not

only have historical value but, despite the passage of time, are very relevant for current


                                                                                                    Katarzyna M. Staszyńska

                                                                                                  Krzysztof Zagórski




Comments Concerning the Position of Theories in the Behavioral Sciences

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The Theory of Defense of One’s Own Position: Self-Esteem and Conscience—The Ideologies of Privileged Groups




Education Legitimates Income Inequality: Normative Beliefs in Early Post-Communist and Market-oriented Nations

Using data from large, representative national samples in in Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, Australia, Finland, and the Netherlands, we examine moral norms about just rewards for education. Comparing these norms in East Central Europe shortly after Communism—where the dominant ideology was egalitarian, schooling free,rewards to education modest, and alternative investments absent—and in market-oriented societies where the opposite held, provides insight into the influence of institutional arrangements on moral norms. We find that the publics in all these countries favor large rewards for education (which legitimates substantial income inequality), showing that these moral norms are resilient to institutional arrangements. These results align with Aristotle’s claim that people believe job performance merits reward because it makes valuable contributions. They undermine alternative theories: credentialism, radical egalitarianism, and the hegemonic power of dominant political elites. These results also undermine economists’ human capital arguments insofar as they are seen as a moral justification for income inequality.



The Effects of Social Origin and Formal Education on First Job in the Process  of Transformation to Market Capitalism: A Cohort Analysis of Data from the Polish Panel Survey

This paper analyses trends in social mobility in Poland in the process of system transformation to market capitalism. Using data from the Polish Panel Survey POLPAN, it compares social origin effects on educational attainment and on occupational status of the first job as well as the impact of formal education on the latter. The analysis is performed over four cohorts that have entered the labor market: (1) between 1983 and 1989, (2) between 1990 and 1998, (3) between 1999 and 2006, and (4) between 2007 and 2013. With regard to the impact of social origin on attainment of tertiary education upon entry to the labor market and on the status of the first job the analyses show stable social origin effects across time. Furthermore, there is evidence of a rising polarization of the effect of educational level on occupational position in the first employment.




How the University Organizational Culture Is Being Experienced? Phenomenological Studies of Experiencing the Here and Now of the Organization

This paper undertakes the issue of how the organizational culture of a certain institution is being experienced by reconstructing the leading themes coming from auto-observation and descriptions of it. Still, instead of investigating how it is perceived or how its values are verbalized, the study referring to the actual experiencing of certain spaces, social relations, as well as how these are being conceptually embraced therein has been undertaken.

To do so, phenomenological methodology and the analysis of qualitative data—adjusted to the research framework at hand—have been employed. Throughout the observation of bodily and mind responses, the lived experience under scrutiny has been given a leading role in regards to determining whether and how the research preconceptualizations should be superseded by the perceptions of the organizational reality under study, as seen and experienced by those who actively partake in the institution at hand.

This research refers to how the University is being experienced by the students of one of its degree courses.

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Patterns of Preference for Dispute Resolution in Poland

This paper presents information from a nationally representative Polish survey in 2014 on the types of dispute resolution preferred by the respondents. It places the findings in the conceptual background of studies conducted since the mid-1970s in Polish sociology of law on the subject of disputes and the use of the courts. The purpose of the analysis was to identify the more general types of dispute settlement preferred in the popular legal culture in Poland, and the socio-demographic variables that correlate significantly with these preferences. The significance of social position, as measured by a version of the Center-Periphery index, has also been confirmed.



Mothering for Neoliberal Times. Mazahua Women, Poverty and the Cultural Politics of Development in Central Mexico

This paper presents the results of fieldwork concerning local development programmes addressed to poor Indian women and the social changes they effect in the marginalised Mazahua communities in central Mexico conducted from 2011 to 2015. By analysing the operation of a women’s cooperative I show how neoliberal ideology, which is at the core of development schemes, incorporates both the feminist ideas of gender equality and empowerment of women, and the Mexican tradition of politicising maternity in a crisis to establish new social hierarchies, subjectivities, and power relations, promote individualistic attitudes and a new, “market-oriented” morality, and reinforce political clientelism, leading to profound and usually detrimental (for women and local gender relations) changes in the functioning of native communities.




“Authentic Experience” and Manufactured Entertainment: Holy Land Experience Religious Theme Park

Holy Land Experience is a religious theme park in Orlando, Florida. The city is home to some of the main theme parks in the United States, however, Holy Land Experience is not a typical one, and in official flyers it claims not to be a theme park at all, its role being, instead, educational. Holy Land Experience is a plaster replica of Jerusalem from the times of Christ, spread on 15 acres of land.

At the same time, it is an interesting example of promoting spirituality using tools attributed to entertainment. Inside the theme park Christianity is shown offering a direct, emotional experience using imitations of Biblical places and events. Indeed, according to the visitors, the overwhelming artificiality of the place does not thwart religious feeling. At Holy Land Experience spiritual experience is merged with entertainment and a sense of America’s uniqueness.

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Reviewers 2017


Polish Sociological Review – The English-language versions of publications were financed on the basis of decision no. 573/1/P-DUN/2017 by funds allocated by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education for the dissemination of knowledge.

Polish Sociological Review – digitalization of publications and monographs in order to ensure and maintain an open access through the Internet is financed by the decision no. 573/1/P-DUN/2017 allocated by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education for the dissemination of knowledge.