PSR 4(184)/2013

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MAREK M. KAMINSKI

University of California

GRZEGORZ LISSOWSKI

University of Warsaw

PIOTR SWISTAK

University of Maryland

Formal Theory and Value Judgments

Abstract: When we assume that a survey reveals respondents’ true attitudes we tacitly assume that the subjects understood what we are asking them about and that they had no incentive to be untruthful. In typical studies none of the two assumptions holds. Subjects are asked questions that use undefined terms and they are asked about issues they have no incentive to answer truthfully. Here we argue that a way to solve the two problems lies in constructing a formal theory of an attitude in such a way that an attitude can be derived from the answers yet when answering the questions subjects cannot possibly know that their responses reveal anything about their attitude and, hence, they have no incentive to answer insincerely. We briefly discuss a study that has the desirable properties necessary for the proper design.

 

ANTONI SUŁEK

University of Warsaw

Method and Meaning in Surveys on Attitudes to Jews in Poland

Abstract: This article is a methodological commentary regarding surveys on attitudes in Poland to Jews and publications on that research. It is intended to help in interpreting survey results and to prevent conclusions being drawn on insufficient grounds. The article shows some of the problems with interpreting and determining the meaning of survey results. It analyses, in this light, the survey meaning of the word “Jew;” numerical questions and answers; questions about attitudes—like and dislike, closeness and distance; answers expressing belief in Jewish power; and questions and answers in international comparative studies.

 

BOGDAN MIHAI RADU

Babes-Bolyai University

The Word of God Comes into the Voting Booth.

Church Attendance and Political Involvement in East Central Europe

during the Early 1990s

Abstract: In this research I explore the effect of religious denomination and belonging on political participation in former communist countries of East Central Europe after the fall of communism. In the early 1990s, mostly as a response to forced secularization during communism, authors heralded a massive religious revival in the countries formerly belonging to the Eastern Bloc. In this paper I show that the re-discovery of God and church was not equally popular in all countries. Moreover, I explore the links between religious participation and political participation and I find no uniform transnational effect of denomination. Rather, the Eurobarometer survey data from the early 1990s suggests that the ways in which religious believing and belonging influence political participation at the beginning of democratization is context driven. Indeed, one of the strengths of this paper resides in my attempt to capture the religious context in post-communist Europe shortly after its collapse. I thus contribute to a better understanding of how religious and political involvement are intertwined during early transition in East Central Europe. In the conclusion, I advocate the need for adequately taking context into consideration, especially given its dynamic and multi-faceted nature.

 

ADAM GENDŹWIŁŁ

University of Warsaw

Why do Poles (still) Dislike Political Parties?

Some Survey Insights into Anti-Party Attitudes in Poland, 1995–2011

Abstract: The article examines the negative approach of Poles towards political parties and partisanship in the recent years, presenting this phenomenon as a part of wider anti-party syndrome, characterizing Polish democracy after 1989. Adapting the approach of Torcal, Gunther and Montero (2002), the author constructs a scale of the anti-partyism, based on the statements typical for anti-party discourse, assessed by respondents in three surveys conducted in 1995, 2001 and 2011. Subsequently, some explanations of anti-party attitudes are tested. The analyses demonstrate that anti-partyism in Poland is relatively durable and embraces both cultural and reactive components. Anti-party attitudes are more visible among citizens socialized during the communist period. However, the consolidation of democracy generated its “own” anti-partyism: the youngest citizens were gradually more disinclined to political parties in the period analyzed (1995–2011).

 

ÖSTEN WAHLBECK

University of Helsinki

Mixed Embeddedness and the Dynamics of Self-Employment

among Turkish Immigrants in Finland

Abstract: The article analyses dynamics of social capital that can explain how Turkish immigrants in Finland become self-employed and why they have established themselves within a particular economic sector. The mixed embeddedness perspective on ethnic and immigrant entrepreneurship is utilised to achieve a better understanding of these processes. The interview study indicates that immigrants are able to establish ethnic economies also in countries with relatively small and geographically dispersed immigrant populations.

Immigrant entrepreneurs can mobilise transnational social capital for the establishment of businesses,but only under circumstances where transnational resources can be utilised as a local resource. To understand the dynamics of immigrants businesses requires an analysis of the embeddedness of immigrants in a simultaneously transnational and local social context.

 

WALDEMAR CUDNY

University of Łodź

RAFAŁ ROUBA

University of Łodź

A Large Sports Event in the Eyes of the Host City’s Inhabitants:

the Example of Wrocław

Abstract: In this article the authors have presented the history and organizational structure of the UEFA Euro 2012. They describe the main investments accompanying the organization of the competition in Poland, and particularly in Wrocław (one of the host cities). They also present a synthesis of the costs and benefits connected with organizing the championship. For the needs of the article, a survey was taken of Wrocław residents asking them what results they foresaw from the organization of the event. The aim of the research was to determine perceptions of the Euro 2012’s expected social, economic, and promotional effects for the city and the country.

COMMUNIQUÉS

Conference: Stanisław Ossowski: from the Perspective of Half a Century

(Jakub B. Motrenko);

Conference: Legal Frames of Memory.

Transitional Justice in Central and Eastern Europe (Monika Żychlińska);

“After the Crisis”

The 15th Polish Sociological Congress (Marek S. Szczepański, Anna Śliz);

 

“Crisis, Critique and Change.”

Sociology of Europe at the Beginning of the 21st Century

(Janusz Mucha, Łukasz Krzyżowski)