Table of contents:
Szymon Wróbel, Foucault Reads Freud: The Dialogue with Unreason and Enlightement;
Krzysztof Jaskułowski, Western (civic) versus Eastern (ethnic) Nationalism. The Origins and Critique of the Dichotomy;
Andrzej Waśkiewicz, Representation as Social Relation. In Praise of Georg Simmel on the Centenary of the Publication of his Essay The Stranger;
Paweł Załęski, Ideal Types in Max Weber’s Sociology of Religion;
- Szymon Wróbel, Foucault Reads Freud: The Dialogue with Unreason and Enlightement;
The title of the essay refers to the famous statement in Foucaults introduction to his History of Madness where he writes that „we have to do justice to Freud”. The problem, however, is that Foucault’s philosophy does not seem to do justice to Freud. Foucault’s use of Freud is ambiguous: sometimes he uses him for purely instrumental purposes (when reconstructing the history of madness and sexuality), but sometimes-for anthropological purposes signaling Freud’s role in redefining our common humanity and particularly our relation to language, life and work. The author confronts Foucault’s ambiguous reading of Freud with the equally ambiguous reading of Foucault by Derrida. Derrida discusses Foucault twice. Once in the essay Cogito and The History of Madness in which Derrida takes on Foucault’s understanding of Descartes and his role in the exclusion of madness from the realm of reason. The second time-in his essay To Do Justice to Freud. Here Derrida disagrees with Foucault whether Freud managed to reestablish the body’s communication with reason which Descartes destroyed.
- Krzysztof Jaskułowski, Western (civic) versus Eastern (ethnic) Nationalism. The Origins and Critique of the Dichotomy;
The author focuses on Hans Kohn (1891-1971) who is generally regarded as the founding father of modern Anglophone academic research on nationalism. He was first to adopt a more neutral stance toward nationalism, one that made sustained attempt at dispassionate analysis of the phenomenon in order to define, classify and explain it. However, not only did he bring in a innovative and novel perspective to the subject by producing broad comparative studies but he was responsible for introducing one of the basic and long-lasting themes to the study of nationalism, namely a strongly moralistic distinction between a good nationalism, which he associated with the West, and a bad nationalism allegedly typical for the non-Western world. The paper discusses three questions: first, how did Kohn conceptualize the differences between the two types of nationalism? Second, how and why did he come to his conclusions and, finally, if it can be argued as many authors claim, that his discrimination between the two types of nationalism are valid and useful?
- Andrzej Waśkiewicz, Representation as Social Relation. In Praise of Georg Simmel on the Centenary of the Publication of his Essay The Stranger;
This article is inspired by Georg Simmel’s formal sociology and written in his characteristic essay style. The article is about the representation relation viewed as a form of social interaction. Contrary to approaches which are dominant in the literature, the author argues that representation is a trilateral relation: the representative always represents the representee before an audience, even if this audience is not always easy to define. The same, paradoxically, can be said about the representee. In its pure forms, the object of representation may be the very presence of the representee, the representee’s will or his/her interest and mutual expectations among the three parties will vary depending on what is being represented. Many representation relations only become such relations ex post; they are initiated not in the act of authorization but in the act of usurpation which is legalized and institutionalized not only by the representee but also by the audience. For this reason, the difference between representation and usurpation is often fluid and fuzzy. The representation relation, as it is understood in this article, is one of the main forms of social interaction because thanks to this relation people who cannot appear personally in the public sphere for various reasons can nevertheless make an appearance.
- Paweł Załęski, Ideal Types in Max Weber’s Sociology of Religion;
Max Weber is widely known as the author of ideal types of power. However, he also developed ideal types of religious attitudes. The article presents his original three ideal types and shows how they can be complemented by a fourth one. The fourth ideal type is based on analysis of magic as religious practice.
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