The basic premise of the paper is that the study of formal and informal processes has moved beyond the formality-informality debate. Forms which may be termed as hybrid formalities and hybrid informalities are more and more often encountered in the literature. However, these hybrid types are pretty much under construction, and they occur in a rather disparate manner. So that, there is need of a systematic approach which would conceptualize them within a broader typology. The paper advances such a typology of hybrid formalities and informalities. For the sake of conceptual unity, these are drafted in the same theoretical framework—the structuralist perspective on informal economy. Eventually, the systematization of this typology of hybrids leads to the formulation of some general findings about the manner in which sociologists relate to formality and informality in general.
Public Capital and the Post-Communist Welfare State: The Case of Poland
This paper provides an overview of some of the main theories of the welfare state. It builds upon Polanyi’s theory of the double-movement and relates this to Bourdieu’s concept of multiple capitals. It argues that the welfare state can be understood as a form of public capital, both in an economic and sociological sense. The welfare state emerges and is maintained due to a social countermovement that at least partly removes areas of socio-economic life out of commodity relations. In turn this creates public capital, which is both economic and social. In the post-Communist countries most of this public capital was created during a period when almost the whole of economic and social life was controlled by the state. Once the Communist system collapsed, so the accompanying policy of full-employment and system of social welfare organised through state enterprises disappeared. This was met with a large rise in unemployment and labour deactivation, meaning that many social benefits were created during the initial years of the transition. Also, the post-Communist systems inherited large amounts of public capital in the form of public services such as health and education. Through the example of Poland this paper analyses how this public capital was initially maintained and even developed during the early transition period, but then how a process of commodifying it was later begun.
JOSEPH J. MERRY
Rising trends in economic inequality are well-established across many affluent nations. However, researchers have accrued considerably less knowledge regarding the economic attitudes and preferences of individuals living within the context of increasing inequality, especially in developing or transition countries. To gain leverage on this topic, we utilize data from Polish Panel Survey (POLPAN) from 1988–2003 to examine change over time in respondents’ preferred levels of income inequality. Results show that Poles tend to accept higher levels of income inequality over time. This effect increases with time, even after controlling for respondents’ meritocratic beliefs and attitudes toward state intervention. In addition, this rise in preferred income inequality changes in accordance with actual and perceived changes in the earnings distribution. After describing the patters of variation in acceptance of income inequality between different social groups, we discuss the implications of individuals’ evolving benchmarks for preferred levels of inequality.
Work at Home, Home at Work: Difficulties in Achieving Work–Life Balance in Selected European Countries
The work-family balance is a state of globally assessed equilibrium in which labour resources enable employees to meet the requirements and expectations of the family, while family resources enable family members to meet the requirements and expectations of the work, making it possible to act effectively in both areas. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that the problem of reconciling work and family life is of global reach (and particularly acute in Western societies). Also, to present differences between selected countries in this aspect. Our hypothesis assumes that, taking work-life balance into consideration, Poland is in the worst situation among these countries. Following Korpi’s classification, the countries we have selected for the analysis are: Germany, Belgium (examples of the general family support model), Sweden, Finland (the dual earner support model) and the United Kingdom (the market-oriented model). Although Poland is not present in Korpi’s classification, we include it in our analysis as an example of a different model, not mentioned by Korpi, namely, the paternalistic-market model.
HOI OK JEONG
A New Typology of Perceived Discrimination and Its Relationship to Immigrants’ Political Trust
This study investigates the link between perceived discrimination and political trust among immigrants in European countries. Focusing on perceived discrimination, I emphasize the diversity of mechanisms through which discrimination is perceived by immigrants; in other words, perceptions of discrimination are multidimensional. This is in stark contrast to most of the research that uncritically assumes that the perceptions of discrimination are unidimensional. Employing the European Social Survey, I find that each of the diverse dimensions of perceived discrimination has different associations with immigrants’ political trust. Furthermore, the association between diverse dimensions of perceived discrimination and political trust varies depending on the immigrant’s generational status. For first-generation immigrants, their trust in political institutions is related to seven types of perception of discrimination, whereas, for the second generation, it is linked only to four types. This indicates that first-generation immigrants’ political trust is more responsive to the perceptions of discrimination in comparison to the second generation of immigrants. SZYMON WRÓBEL Community in Question. Failure of Communitarianism, Misery of Individualisms and Community of Existence The main task of the present paper is to rethink the very idea of community, in comparison with other terms that describe the human collectivity such as—people, society, population, free association, group, collective or aggregate. After analyzing three basic ways of thinking about community—the liberal one, communitarianist and the biopolitical paradigm, the author reconstructs the contemporary concepts of community, such as the “unavowable community” (Maurice Blanchot), “the inoperative community” (Jean-Luc Nancy), “community in question” (Jacques Derrida), “the coming community” (Giorgio Agamben), “a collective” (Bruno Latour), and communitas (Roberto Esposito). As the result of his analyzes the author infers the general conclusion, that what is at stake in philosophical discourse about communities is “conjuring up” or “designing” alternative ways of being, alternative ontologies of the social world.
Siberian Circle Dances: the New and the Old Communitas
The article explores the link between the circle dance and its cultural and political environment, its situational context. I analyze this phenomenon using the notion of communitas, created by Victor Turner, which relates to the state of a group when the unity, uniformity, and communality become more important than the internal diversity and social structure. The article is based on various material including interviews, records of observation, and visual documentation that I have gathered during fieldwork in ethnic Buryatia in 2000, 2010, 2012, 2013 and 2014, and in Yakutia in 2013. Presently in both republics circle dances often accompany ceremonies, celebrations, or cultural festivals organized by the authorities (state or local administrations, or non-governmental organizations.
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Polish Sociological Review – digitalization of publications and monographs in order to ensure and maintain an open access through the Internet is financed by the decision no. 618/P-Dun/2016 allocated by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education for the dissemination of knowledge.
Polish Sociological Review – The English-language versions of publications were financed on the basis of decision no. 618/P-DUN/2016 by funds allocated by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education for the dissemination of knowledge.