Luhmann’s Functional Subsystems of Modern Society—The Character of Horizontal and
This study focuses on one of the basic questions of Luhmann’s social theory relating to the description of modernity, namely, on the characteristics of subsystems and, even more specifically, it is aimed at gaining new recognitions concerning the relationships between subsystems. To do this, the study starts with sporadic comments in Luhmann’s late work indicating historical and current inequalities between functional subsystems that are characterised in essence by a coordinating structure. Supplementing these recognitions by new arguments, the study concludes that besides the horizontal relationships, a variety of hierarchic (vertical) organisation forms also develop under the conditions ofmodernity. The dynamic of the subsystems is also affected by external irritations of unequal weights and frequencies of occurrence which, though not necessarily overwriting the autopoiesis of the various subsystems, definitely influences the importance of the various subsystems in the process of social communication. The other part of the study points out-by analysing the organisation’s system level among other aspects-that vertical segmentation is a characteristic of the entirety of sociality besides the horizontal structure. Consequently, the study concludes that the description of modernity in Luhmann’s social theory is in need of some adjustment.
Imagining a Home in a World of Flux: Challenging Individualisation and Transnational
Article attempts to discuss the significance of individual consciousness, people’s motivation to pursuit their ends and the extent of their freedom from exterior influences, while focusing on relationship between migration processes and belongings among diasporic groups. It draws on insight from the indepth interviews with migrants who are a part of Slovene and Irish transnational diaspora, and thus aims to represent certain transformations in social reality embraced by the ideas of individualisation, while being simultaneously aware of particular weaknesses of those ideas. The focus is on their conceptualisations and perceptions of home, as a useful concept in considering individualisation that undermines the traditional meanings of tradition, family relations, ethnical and national belongings. What seems to be important is that in the era of increased individualisation, traditional social categories remain salient although contested and social forces still represent influential components inmigrants’ negotiation of the selves and the others. The conceptual lens, which could capture the contested relation between agency and structure in migrants’ live, is that of transnational social fields.
From Vis-a-Vis to Face(book)-to-Face(book) Interaction. A Study on Friendship Between
This article presents the main results of an empirical research conducted on two places where young students make friendly relationships: school and Internet. It is obvious that two different places symbolize two different levels of reality. Are they complementary or contradictory? Are the friends of this real world equal to Facebook friends? Can we consider school friendship the same as the friendship accepted, and removed, by a simple click? The author tries to pinpoint the hidden mechanisms through which the virtual reality is actualized. By the social relational ontology, it’s possible to understand better and deeper the link between social capital of the young students and the continuum passage from on-line to off-line friendship.
Małgorzata Karpińska Krakowiak
The Impact of Consumer Knowledge on Brand Image Transfer in Cultural Event Sponsorship
The paper presents some preliminary findings on the role of consumer knowledge in cultural event sponsorships. Using a field design, the impact of consumer knowledge on the brand image transfer wasmeasured. Two international cultural events were examined and a total of 853 respondents participated in this study. The Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were performed to determine whether there were any differences in brand image transfer between experts (‚high-knowledge’ spectators) and novices (‚low-knowledge’ spectators). The results reveal that image-building effects in cultural event sponsorship are considerably less pronounced if event spectators are highly knowledgeable about an event and its sponsoring brand. The findings indicate to what extent a brand may thrive on event sponsorship and how important it is to track current market segmentation and brand positioning.
Symbol of the Cross in Popular Culture: an Analysis of the Use and Transformation of the
Symbol in Machina Magazine
The article focuses on the use and transformation of religious symbols in popular culture. The Polish pop culture magazine, Machina, was chosen as a case study. Popular culture, based strongly on visual communication, has fluid canons and is of an (auto)ironic nature. Symbols from different domains are transformed within this culture so that they fit its rules of communication. Religious symbols have been used extensively in Machina in a conventional, humorous and deriding manner. According to the results of the analysis, the use of religious symbols in popular culture is inevitably connected to the overlapping of religious communication and pop cultural communication, which creates a particular ambivalence of the meaning of the symbol. One should ask if resulting adaptations of religious symbols by popular culture might be considered to be a process of desacralisation. On the basis of the above-mentioned case study, one cannot give an unequivocal answer. Although pop cultural communication may lead to simplification and the deconstruction of symbols, one cannot claim it is de-symbolised as such. Desymbolisation and desacralisation are ongoing processes, but they are parallel to the process of creation and transformation of symbols as well. The research may be an inspiration for further analysis of the way religious symbols function within the realm of popular culture.
Do Voters Read Gender? Stereotypes as Voting Cues in Electoral Settings
In this paper, I examine the impact of voters’ stereotypes regarding candidate gender on their propensity to favour either male or female candidates to the parliament. I draw on two strands of literature: the proposition put forward by Huddy and Terkildsen (1993a) holding that candidate gender gives a rise to the emergence of stereotypes concerning their qualifications and stances on political issues, and Sanbonmatsu’s (2002) argument that such stereotypes breed voters’ preferences regarding their representatives’ gender. The link between gender stereotypes and voters’ gender preferences is examined in the context of Polish parliamentary election of 2005. I find out initial evidence suggesting that, indeed, stereotypes concerning candidate qualifications and beliefs, as well as a voter’s own gender, affect electoral preferences of Polish voters.
Gender Perspective and the Temporal Aspect in Managerial Careers: Male and Female Views of Time
The purpose of this article is to describe the perception of time by men and women in managerial positions in business organizations (and the specific actions resulting from that perception). The differences and similarities in perceiving time by representatives of the two sexes were reconstructed on the basis of nearly fifty narrative interviews conducted within the framework of two projects: ‚The Temporal Aspect of Managerial Careers’ (concluded in 2005) and the ongoing ‚Spatial Aspect of Managerial Careers’. In the context of the titular gender perspective, what is noteworthy is the vision of their careers that organizational actors’ declare and realize, in that they perceive them, despite the contradictions resulting from the gender difference, as being planned and realized through persistence.Key categories describing this type of attitude are those of the ‚self-made man’ and ‚self-made woman’. Differences in ways of realizing the ideal of the inner-directed manager, which are the effect of a culturally conditioned perception of the role that men and women ‚should’ fill, are also important.
Analysis of the data collected was conducted on the basis of grounded theory methodology.