PSR 1(185)/2014

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INTA MIERINA

Political Alienation and Government-Society Relations in Post-Communist Countries

On the basis of 1996 and 2006 International Social Survey Program (ISSP) data this paper explores the character of government-society relations in post-communist countries, and its dynamics. The use of comparative data and the application of Paige’s (1971) political alienation model and Woolcock’s and Narayan’s (2000) model of government-society relations allows to shed new light on citizen’s political attitudes by analysing them in the context of the overall political environment in the country. The results reveal that while citizens in most established democracies bear allegiant attitudes, citizens of post-communist countries feel alienated. Distrust of each other and of the political authorities leads to dysfunctional government-society relations. Since the time of transitional reforms people in post-communist countries have become more confident in their political capability, yet there is no general trend with regards to confidence in political authorities. Those at the margins of society often feel alienated, and dissident attitudes are on the rise, especially among youth.

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GALIA CHIMIAK

The Rise and Stall of Non-Governmental Organizations in Development

Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) role in development evolved from marginal to major over the second half of the XX century. In the early 1990s the increase of support for NGOs in countries receiving foreign aid was an effect of donors’ attempts to circumvent the recipients’ state institutions as these were considered corrupt and/or ineffective. This support took place under the slogan of good governance. Both national and international NGOs remained the favored child of donor agencies up to 9/11, 2001. The superseding long war on terror had an impact on the strategy towards NGOs, too. Namely, it has been acknowledged that NGOs’ activities should undergo closer scrutiny. This approach tightened the control over NGOs and also resulted in national and international NGOs’ self-censorship.

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MARCIN DĘBICKI

JULITA MAKARO

Research on the Attitudes of the Inhabitants of Wrocław to Lithuania and Lithuanians

The main aim of the article refers to an attempt of outlining the image that the contemporary inhabitants of Wrocław have towards Lithuania and Lithuanians. In order to deal with it, we are going to present some data from relevant surveys as well as a fragment of the results coming from our own sociological research, and what comes out of it shall be applied to a broader theoretical context. The step that should make it easier to fully understand the problem is a short note on the relations between these two countries and nations in the past as well as present.

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MAREK NOWAK

Revitalization of Cities in the Absence of Legislative Support: the Case of Poznań

The article describes the problem of revitalization in a central and eastern European context as an element of the picture of social change. The article recapitulates the social and the spatial experiment which started in 2005 when one of the first processes of revitalization in Poland began. The idea of the revitalization was anchored in two places. The first was the socially rooted idea of the participation of inhabitants in urban planning, based on East German experiences (support in the original context by low dedicated particularly for revitalization processes). The second was that of improving the „touristic portfolio” of the city rooted in the multicultural history of the place, and the local identity. Actions which mainly relate to communication, cultural and social initiatives turned on processes which the author called „unsuccessful gentrification.” The article attempts to identify what happened and why it happened. The investigation is based on the quantitative data from the social survey (researchers asked mostly inhabitants of the revitalized area questions), and qualitative in-depth interviews. The contextual data was taken from urban observation, the local real estate market, and public statistics.

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CLARE E. GRIFFITHS

Group Conflict and ‘Confined’ and ‘Collaborative’ Collective Efficacy: The Importance of a Normative Core between Immigrants and Natives in an English Town

It has long been contended by both the ‚old’ and ‚new’ Chicago School that immigration fractures effective community controls, resulting in increased crime, conflict and social disorder. Building on the Chicago School approach, this article provides an extended model of the theory of collective efficacy introducing two new concepts of ‚confined’ and ‚collaborative’ collective efficacy. The article is based on research carried out in an English town that experienced a mass and rapid in-migration of Polish nationals. The results of a survey of Polish migrants (n=78) and native residents (n=172) demonstrate how a perceived ‚normative core’ between diverse groups is the crucial ingredient for collaboration in social control efforts and for dissipating instances of inter-group conflict.

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JANUSZ MUCHA

KAMIL ŁUCZAJ

Foreigners in the Polish Academic System at the Beginning of the 21st Century. A Quantitative Analysis of their Employment According to the Official Documents

This is an empirical quantitative analysis of the official data coming from the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education. The foreign scholars in Poland at the beginning of the 21st century are presented in the context of the global „brain circulation” or migration of highly qualified specialists. The second context is the present Polish academic system. In this paper we discuss characteristics of the analysed data base, universities and colleges where the foreign scholars are usually employed, the academic disciplines they represent, the relations between the number of foreign scholars and the institutional prestige of schools employing them, and conclusions on what we can and cannot learn from the data set analysed here.

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On the Difficulty of Being Fair: A Review of Grzegorz Lissowski’s Principles of Distributive Justicer (Agata Komendant-Brodowska)

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Polish Sociological Review – digitalization of publications and monographs in order to ensure and maintain an open access through the Internet is financed  by the decision no. 618/P-Dun/2016 allocated by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education for the dissemination of knowledge.